It is essential that paper identifies a key issue within photographic practice and culture, and that you attempt to make a claim and support your claim through both personal and theoretical research and argumentation. – The essay has to be titled, should be in 10-12 point font, 11?2 or double-spaced, with page numbers, and referenced in accordance with the protocols of the Harvard convention of citation, with copies of any relevant illustrations. Research, and draft of paragraph topics. (Research is not my own words, so can not be copied) Introduction Identity (theorists and artists) Deleuze and Guattari. Becoming human and becoming non-human Body (theorists and artists) Kevin Carter – Sudan Famine (march 1993) In March 1993, while on a trip to Sudan, Carter was preparing to photograph a starving toddler trying to reach a feeding center when a hooded vulture landed nearby. Carter reported taking the picture, because it was his “job title”, and leaving. He was told not to touch the children for fear of transmitting disease. After taking the picture, he got up and chased the vulture away.[clarification needed] Sold to The New York Times, the photograph first appeared on 26 March 1993 and was carried in many other newspapers around the world. Hundreds of people contacted the newspaper to ask the fate of the girl. The paper reported that it was not known whether she had managed to reach the feeding centre. In April 1994, the photograph won the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography. “The notion of ‘affect’ has become central to understanding the body in relation to knowledge. This lecture considers the relation of the body to photography and photography’s relation to feeling. [It is a counter-point the emphasis of the previous lecture on conceptual art.]” Prize Crop (video still) Matt Collishaw “Think therefore Iam” Descartes 1596 – 1650, Therefore conceptual art. (https://newlearningonline.com/new-learning/chapter-7/descartes-i-think-therefore-i-am) – Audio Shadow” -How we get a body? -What it tells us -Affect – Degas – Young Spartans (began in 1860) – about body, the way the human becomes split and a certain kind anxiety within the expressionist of the body. – Nauman – Corridor Suicide Bomber as body as language. using your body as part of politics- the way of using your body as a weapon and communication. – Deleuze and Guattari. Becoming human and becoming non-human (https://www.palgraveconnect.com/pc/doifinder/view/10.1057/9781137453693.0012) The face (theorists and artists- EMMANUEL LEVINAS) Reading faces for identity, character, and expression is as old as humanity but representing these states is relatively recent. From the 16th century, physiognomists classified character in terms of both facial form and represented the types graphically. Darwin distinguished between physiognomy (which concerned static features reflecting character) and expression (which was dynamic and reflected emotions). Artists represented personality, pleasure, and pain in their paintings and drawings, but the scientific study of faces was revolutionized by photography in the 19th century. Rather than relying on artistic abstractions of fleeting facial expressions, scientists photographed what the eye could not discriminate. Photography was applied first to stereoscopic portraiture (by Wheatstone) then to the study of facial expressions (by Duchenne) and to identity (by Galton and Bertillon). Photography opened new methods for investigating face perception, most markedly with Galton’s composites derived from combining aligned photographs of many sitters. In the same decade (1870s), KÃ¼hne took the process of photography as a model for the chemical action of light in the retina. These developments and their developers are described and fixed in time, but the ideas they initiated have proved impossible to stop – Jill Greenburg – “end of the world” – John Stezaker. Portraits of celebs, montages of forms covered the face. human representtion. sets up questions of the dominants of face, and how the face murges into the scene. reprsenting that the face is everywhere. Juxtaposition The gaze -Holbein”s a,bassadors, 1533 (national Gallery) a smudge that u can only see when looking from the side, that there is a skull. A hidden, not obvious. you can only see it from its correct form, that being the side. (followed by picture on iPhone) extended skull, and then retraction. the painter revealing the death drive, almost a diagram of explaining the death driver. a trap for a gaze. when we encounter a image, theres a gaze within the image thats returned to us, our gaze within the work and the work.. never meet. In this painting to realms – you have to view from a angle- from a different realm. our sense in which this is laid out for us to sacrifice our own. The painting reflects our own nothingness, in the figure of the deaths head. a frustration of not being able to see the skull properly. “The Gaze” for Lacan- the eye which looks is that of the subject while the gaze is on the side of the object, there is no coincidence. when the subject looks at the object the object is already having a gaze. therefore not being able to connect with the gaze because it was already there. Gender – essay on girls throwing differently to boys as children (Unknown who by) – “Young is making a generalisation about Western women and obviously there are exceptions to her claims, but in her words I could (and can) see myself. So often growing up I mistrusted the ability of my body to do things. Oh, I can”t lift that, I”m not strong enoughâ€, or I won”t be able to get the ball in the netâ€, or I might get hurtâ€, or What if I look stupid doing that?â€. A self-imposed I cannotâ€, is how Young describes it. These are also things that women are taught about their bodies by society. For example, sit with your knees togetherâ€, that sport is for boysâ€, and the fact that you throw/run like a girlâ€ is an insult. These rules and ideas about what”s appropriate and inappropriate for the female body have implications.” (https://postfeminist.wordpress.com/2010/04/18/on-throwing-like-a-girl/ – Rebecca Warren – female body – -Jenny saville – “making flesh articulate” – Doll (https://jbailey2013.wordpress.com/2015/11/17/the-dolls-house-and-its-links-with-home-and-identity/) . Dolls are used as sacred object, decoration object, playing object, personified object or cherished object. The expression types of doll image in modern fashion are as following; substitutes of multi-ego, object of sexual desire, objectified creature, and medium of transcending fantasy. First, dolls image as substitutes of multi-ego had been expressed in magical expression, disgusting mask, transparent mannequin, expressionless, horror, conflict, loss of identity, exaggeration or escapism. Second, as object of sexual desire, dolls image are expressed as naked baby, ambiguous expression, naked body, voluminous body, emphasized specific bodypart, heavy makeup or wax doll of sexy actresses. Third, as objectified creature, dolls are human body in passive form. Human bodies are disassembled and reassembled as dolls. Such dolls reflect serious reality. They wrap up human like product and objectify it. Fourth, dolls image expressed as medium of transcending fantasy recollects youth age or expresses imagination on ambiguous virtual reality. Like this, dolls have value as creatures in various fields of modern fashion. Dolls contribute a lot in creating important inspiration. Dolls also expose internal mentality and represent ego. Externally, dolls express human shape becoming more and more materialized and objectified by advancing scientific technology in digital capitalistic society. (The Internal Meanings of Dolls and Dolls’ Images Expressed in Modern Fashion Show ) The dolls” house as children”s plaything is anything but simple. Inasmuch as the dolls” house may be the reproduction of domestic ideals on a minute scale and an educational model prompting girls to become good housewives, this article argues that it is also a means and space to express imagination, creativity, and agency. Including a short history of the development of dolls” houses, this article considers how the image of the dolls” house is significant in the depiction of a perfect domestic world through the examination of selected dolls” house stories in the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century and adult women”s autobiographical recollections of dolls” house play in their Victorian childhood. Secondly, the article also examines some lesser-known children”s fiction set inside the dolls” house or in a miniature world, such as Edith Nesbit”s The Magic City (1910) and offers a close reading of Doris Davey”s My Dolly”s Home (1921), to discuss how literary representations of dolls” houses and depictions of children”s adventures into miniature worlds juxtapose size contrasts and provoke readers” unconscious anxieties about the boundaries between imagination and reality. (Playing with Size and Reality: The Fascination of a Dolls” House World) Over a century ago, two behavioural researchers, Caswell Ellis and Stanley Hall, conducted a psychological study of dolls using principally the survey method. Their questionnaire was issued to 800 teachers and parents in order to access certain information. They state, The data desired are juvenile feelings, acts, or thoughts towards any object which represents a baby or a childâ€ (1896: 129). The following are excerpts from On Young of Old, Vice Versa 13 the instructions to teachers and parents on the questionnaire. 1. Describe your dolls and get children to do the same; whether of wax, rags, paper, pasteboard, rubber, china, wood, stone, etc., and give instances where clothes pins, nails, bottles, vegetables, sticks, flowers, keys, button hooks, etc, have been regarded as dolls in any respect or in any degree. 2. Feeding … Describe imaginary foods, dishes, spoons, and other utensils. Is there any regularly or system of feeding, and any hunger starvation, food preferences, or growth imagined. 3. Medicines, diseases. What diseases, pains, symptoms are imagined. How is sympathy shown… How, and with what conceptions. Imaginary doll doctors, their visit and functions… 4. What constitutes the death of a doll. Funeral services, and burial of dolls. When lost or crushed do children assume a future life for the doll, and does this assuage their grief. 5. Give details of psychic acts and qualities ascribed to the dolls, and show how real, how treated, etc., are their feelings of cold, fatigue, anger, pain, jealousy, love, hate, goodness and badness, modesty, tidiness, etc. Is any individuality or moral or other characteristics consistently and persistently ascribed to dolls. 6. Dolls” names. Are they of real persons, and if so, is their any resemblance real or fancied. 7. Accessories and furnishings, toilet, articles, clothes, beds, tables and dishes…for the doll, etc… 8. Doll families, and the relationship of the members, doll schools, doll parties, balls, entertainment, weddings. 9. Doll discipline, hygiene and regimen. What toilet and what rewards and punishments are usual, and what moral qualities are aimed at. 10. Dolls” sleep. How are they put to sleep… 11. Dress … Can taste in dress, tidiness…or other moral qualities be cultivated. How does the material of which the doll is made and the degree of life-like perfection react on the child. Is there regularly and persistency in the care of the dolls…(1896: 129-130). The various elements of the above list were described to the teachers and parents as merely suggestiveâ€, and were expected by the researchers 14 Chapter One to be used by them to write down with accuracy any facts which memory or observation may suggest…â€ (1986: 130). Each of these characteristics implies the presence of an imaginative process capable of bringing the (doll) object squarely within the realm of another”s private, subjective purview, be her or him a child or an adult. This personal scope not only enables my dollâ€ to possess psychic acts and qualitiesâ€, for example, not principally attributed by others to meâ€, but that such displays and characteristics can be individualized to points of psychological subtly and idiosyncrasy. Scholar Juliette Peers, in her examination of the Fashion doll through modern history, describes the societal construction of the female identity using the doll as the mediating object between gender and culture. Dolls raise so many issues about the representation and cultural positioning of the feminine in society that the narrative could be extended to censorship and the erotic … or ethnicity … or marketing, branding and global corporationsâ€”subjects that cut across but are not synonymous with the doll and fashion interchange.â€ (2004: 8). In his book The Sex Doll (2010), writer Anthony Ferguson describes the artist Oskar Kokoschka”s use of a life-sized doll constructed specifically for him in the uncanny physical likeness of his deceased wife. In this case, what begins as behaviour fuelled by sentiment towards his dear departedâ€, ends as a serendipitous experience of the object as better than the previous living thingâ€: Kokoschka had a torrid love affair with Alma Mahler, the widow of the great composer … when she ended the relationship after three years, Kokoschka reacted badly and continued to obsess over her for the rest of his life … so powerful were his residual feelings for Alma that he tried to exorcise his obsession by commissioning the construction of a life-sized doll. He … commissioned Mahler”s personal dressmaker … to make the doll for him. He bought the doll clothes and underwear, and brought it out for public engagements … Jon Stratton notes He got his servants to spread rumors about the doll, to give public impression that she was a real women … Kokoschka held a big party during which, the servant paraded the doll as if at a fashion showâ€. For Kokoschka the doll was not only a surrogate for Mahler, but she was, to his mind, a considerable improvement on the original… As to whether he has sexual relations with the doll, Kokoschka never told. (2010: 20-21) Also, where dolls (as well as teddy bears) are often concerned, great efforts are sometimes made to preserve the physical integrity of the object as it becomes increasingly worn. Indeed, the doll hospital functions for just this purpose. To date, there are over two hundred of these businesses in the United States alone. One resides in Secaucus, New Jersey, owned by Luis and Ana Casas, originally from Bogota, Columbia. According to Jim Beckerman, staff writer for The Bergen Record, The front parlor is the “waiting room”. It”s overflowing with patients: Raggedy Anns, teddy bears, Cabbage Patch Kids. Pinocchio and his IV tube (he”s on “5 percent dextrose” solution), on a shelf on the far wall…â€ (2011: F-3). The owners, who also run the hospital, mention how they have become well acquainted with high sentimentality in individual Americans. Beckerman continues, Most of the toys here have stories. Some are so heartbreaking, it”s all that Dr. Casas and his wife can do to maintain their bedside mannerâ€ (2011: F- 3). (https://www.cambridgescholars.com/download/sample/57971) (theorists and artists) The mannequin https://peterliving.com/gallery/mannequins/ https://www.odedbalilty.com/photojournalism/photojournalism/life-of-a-mannequin/ https://www.jeromeabramovitch.com/photography/mannequin_series.html
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