2.4 Methodology and Basic Design Overview Population and Sample The study will target a population of ex-servicemen previously deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq. G-Power will be used to calculate the sample needed for effective research on the topic. Purposive sampling will be employed to obtain a sample of 100 servicemen who had served in the two conflicts. Recruitment for the study will be done through a public campaign in conjunction with war veteran organizations and regions. The veteran organization will be responsible for informing their member about the study and its potential benefit to suffering veterans. The study will notify the 100 participants randomly chosen from those who answer the survey of their acceptance as respondents for the study. 3.2 Contributions to Theory The study will introduce new evidence on whether there is a correlation between combative exposure and domestic violence. The two variables are engaging in domestic violence, and the exposure to combative environment (Lahad & Doron, 2010). The study will also refine and support the existing studies based on the relationship between combative exposure and domestic violence and desensitization due to combat exposure This needs further development. You must discuss a theory in psychology realm. While these are important contributions, a dissertation must be based on theory and add to the academic literature. Name the theory /theories and fully define them (include citations) 3.3 Theoretical Implications The study will understand the relationship between combat exposure and domestic violence, the extend of combat exposure to result in domestic violence and whether the combat exposure desensitizes military personnel. This section needs further development to pass milestone 5 review. You need to include citations and build on what you presented in the previous section (which theory is identified ) 3.4 Practical implication The study can be used as a proof/ evidence to the theories relating to the subject – correlation between combat exposure and domestic violence. The study will contribute to knowledge through its findings on the correlation between combat exposure and domestic violence. The study will bring out the urgency of dealing with the mental disorders among veterans with the aim of bringing sanity into their families (McDermott, 2012). There are so many more practical implications that haven”t been mentioned. This study could help combat veterans, the VA, the DOD etc. It has treatment implications, implications for training post deployment and training post deployment. 4.2 Population and Sampling Target population: Ex-servicemen previously deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq. This is the population from which the sample (study participants) will be drawn. Characteristics of the population: Population size Military Designation Ex-servicemen Rank when left the service E4-E7 Gender 100% of the sample male Age 20-45 Deployment length Previously deployed to Afghanistan or Iraq -12 months -15 months Sampling: Estimated sample size: 100 Method of estimating sample size: Power Analysis using G*Power software. Before doing an experiment, power analysis should be performed to estimate the number of observations you need to have a good chance of detecting the effect (John, 2014). Since this study is a quasi-experimental correlational design based a power analysis to estimate the sample size is suitable to determine the valid number of subject participants needed for the study to obtain valid results. Parameters used for power analysis: – Effect size: 0.1 (small effect size). In Cohen’s terminology, a small effect size is one in which there is a real effect — i.e., something is really happening in the world — but which you can only see through careful study (Ian, 2008). In this study, the correlation between combat exposure and domestic violence can be detected only through careful study. – Standard Deviation: 0.2 (20%). Cohen suggested that d=0.2 be considered a ‘small’ effect size (Ian, 2008). – Alpha: 0.5 (50%). The usual value is alpha=0.05 (John, 2014). – Beta: 0.5 (50%). If you really, really want to be sure that you detect your effect size, you’ll want to use a higher value for power (lower beta), which will result in a bigger sample size (John, 2014). In this research, we have chosen 0.5 beta to get a decent surety on sample size. Sampling Strategy: Purposive sampling. Purposive sampling is a type of non-probability sampling. In non-probability sampling, the researcher will select the samples up on his discretion/ judgment. Purposive sampling will be employed to obtain a sample of 100 servicemen who had served in the two conflicts. Purposive sampling is chosen over random/probability sampling to make sure the sample is relevant for the study. Sample inclusion/ exclusion criteria: – Inclusion criteria: Ex-servicemen who had served in the two conflicts. – Exclusion criteria: The servicemen who have not served in at least two conflicts. Recruitment for the study will be done through a public campaign in conjunction with war veteran organizations and regions. The veteran organization will be responsible for informing their member about the study and its potential benefit to suffering veterans. You will most likely need to provide more information- which organizations are you going to contact? 5.3 Operational definitions . Combat exposure is described as an assignment to life threatening military operations including firing rounds at enemy combatants and other dangerous undertakings (Rosenthal, Grosswald, Ross and Rosenthal, 2012). This study will measure combat exposure by using a sliding scale of 7 combat exposure scales. On each of these combat exposure scales, a five-point frequency scale is used to represent the person”s extent to exposure. 5 is used where a person has never been exposed to physical violence, 4 is used where a person has exposed to combat exposure for one time, 3 for two – three times, 4 for four times and 5 for more than five times. The Conflict Tactics Scale is used to measure domestic violence victimization as well as the effect of three domestic violence tactics: Negotiation, Psychological aggression, Physical Assault, Sexual Coercion and Injury. You have other variables in this study. How about domestic violence? 5.4 Measures/Instruments This study will explore the supposed correlation between veteran soldiers” wartime combat exposure and consequent domestic violence directed at their heterosexual spouses. The study will use combat exposure as the independent variable while domestic violence will be the dependent variable. Data collection instruments employed for this study comprise of the Combat exposure Scale, and the Conflict Tactics scale. The Combat Exposure scale is a seven item questionnaire first developed for use in research pertaining to the wartime experiences of Vietnam veterans (Kimbrell et al, 2014). Data on the dependent variable will be collected using the Conflict Tactic Scale. This instrument applies self-reporting to seek information from participants in regard to exhibiting certain behaviors in the past year. In this study, the participants will be asked to self-report on aggressive behaviors towards their spouses. See list of things needed to be covered in the left hand column. You need to discuss the types of data (ordinal, nominal, etc), reliability and validity data too For each measure include: (A) citation for published measure/instrument (B) description of the measure/instrument (C) data type(s)/levels of measurement for variable(s) measured by the instrument (C) available psychometric information (including normative data and validity & reliability coefficients for each measure/instrument.) Attach a copy of each instrument you plan to use as an appendix to your Research Plan. If permission is required to use the instrument, please attach a copy of documentation showing that you have permission to use the instrument. 5.5 Research Hypotheses Null hypothesis H10: There is no statistically significant relationship between combative exposure of war veterans and the likelihood of engaging in violence with their heterosexual partner. Alternative hypothesis H11: There is a correlation between combative exposure of war veterans and the likelihood of engaging in violence with their heterosexual partner. For each quantitative question and sub-question in Item 1.5, list hypotheses for their investigation. Give nulls and alternates for each sub-question. Use appropriate nomenclature for the hypotheses. 5.7 Data collection and sampling procedures This study will utilize online surveys to collect the primary data needed to establish the relationship between the research variables. The online survey will be obtained and completed through the Qualtrics Survey System. Qualtrics is a survey system that permits the creation of survey instruments, distribution of the surveys, data storage and analysis. You need to discuss asking participants inclusion criteria questions 5.8 Data collection procedures Don”t repeat yourself, each section should contain unique information. This section needs updating 5.9 Data Analyses (e) Data analysis to be conducted: Hypothetical Statements: a) There is no correlation between combative exposure of war veterans and the likelihood of engaging in violence with their heterosexual partner. b) There is correlation between combative exposure of war veterans and the likelihood of engaging in violence with their heterosexual partner. c) What is the extent of exposure to frontline violence and combat of military personnel who subsequently perpetrate domestic violence? d) Exposure to combat will not desensitize soldiers to violence. e) Exposure to combat will desensitize soldiers to violence. f) The data will be stored electronically using a password encrypted computer in a statistically analysis software like SPSS RQ# Type of Analysis Descriptive Stats Hypothesis Testing Posthoc Analysis Correlation Mean Null and alternate hypothesis ANOVA Correlation Mean Null and alternative hypothesis ANOVA Correlation Mean Null and alternate hypothesis ANOVA 5.10 Expected Findings The result of the finding is expected to show a correlation between the two variables. The result is a supposed to indicate whether there correlation between combative exposure of war veterans and the likelihood of engaging in violence with their heterosexual partner (Truman, 2011). Why do you expect this finding? You need to present expected findings for each RQ and include citations References Autor, David, Mark G. Duggan, and David S. Lyle. (2011). â€œBattle Scars? The Puzzling Decline in Employment and Rise in Disability Receipt among Vietnam Era Veterans. American Economic Review; vol. 101, no. 3, May 2011. (pp. 339-44) Zatzick, D. F., Marmar, C. R., Weiss, D. S., Browner, W. S., Metzler, T. J., Golding, J. M., … & Wells, K. B. (2014). Posttraumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. United States Army Medical Command, Office of the Surgeon General. (2009). â€œEpidemiologic Consultation No. 14-HK-OB1U-09, Investigation of Homicides at Fort Carson, Colorado, November 2008-May 2009, Final Report.â€ Available at: https://www.armymedicine.army.mil/reports/FinalRedactedEpicon. Appendix Appendix Part I – Background Information/Demographics For the following questions, circle the appropriate letter or write in your response in the space provided. 1. Gender (circle one): Male Female 2. Age at last birthday: ______ years 3. Class level: a. Freshman b. Sophomore c. Junior d. Senior Part II- Military Affiliation For the following questions, circle the appropriate response. 1. Are you currently a member of any branch of the United States military? a. Yes b. No 2. Are you commissioned officer? a. Yes b. No 3. Are you a warrant officer a. Yes b. No 4. Are you a non-commissioned officer? a. Yes b. No Part III – Domestic violence 1. Do you often engage in domestic violence with your significant other? Yes___ No____ 2. What is the severity of the violence? Less severe_____ moderate_____ very severe____ IMPORTANT:
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