1. Research Paper Guidelines. This paper, which is worth 20 points, must be at least 10 pages long, if written in a double-spaced, 12-font, Word document. Title, reference page, and attachments are not counted as part of the page requirement. The following are the specific guidelines for the research paper. You must use title page, page numbers, paragraphs, and the seven highlighted subheadings to divide and structure the paper. Also, please note that although the topic, questions, concepts, assumptions, hypotheses, and methods are based on your Research Proposal, you are expected to write the Research Paper in a different way. When you read the guidelines below, you will notice that the topic is a little more specific on certain aspects of police auditing you have focused on. The concepts and assumptions and/or hypotheses in the Literature Review section may change a little also to reflect what you actually did after submitting the proposal. The new Results section covers two things, one about what you learned in the coding process and from reading the audit report assigned; the second part about analysis of the merged data set according to your assumptions and/or hypotheses. In short, the Research Proposal is about what you propose to do; the Research Paper is about what you actually did in the second half of the semester. Title of the Paper This should be on your title page, where you write the title of your paper, the name of the class, your name (include all student names if this is a group project), and date of submission. Your paper should be titled according to the key police auditing issues you examine. For example, if the key issues are the research process and measurement criteria, your paper should be titled: “The Research Process and Measurement Criteria: A Content Analysis of Police Audit Reports.” Introduction of Research Questions Here you will ask your research questions on police auditing, write the rationale or significance of your research, and describe briefly the police audit report assigned to you and the dataset and methods you used for your analysis. Literature Review You will start this section with a statement about five to eight major concepts or ideas found in the textbooks and literature related to your research questions. You will then explain these concepts one by one according to the way they were explained in the textbooks and literature. There should be one paragraph for each concept. At the end of this section, you will state at least five assumptions (required) and/or hypotheses (optional) as derived from the concepts and variables just reviewed. You should provide explanation of these assumptions and hypotheses if necessary. Please note that there should be a clear linkage between the concepts you have reviewed and the assumptions and hypotheses you state. And the assumptions and hypotheses should be stated in such a way that the analysis of them will allow you to answer your research questions. Minimally five sources of books and articles are required and should be cited in this section. Excessive quotes should be avoided. Where quotes are used, page numbers must be provided in addition to authors’ last names and years of publication in parentheses, i.e., (Smith, 1989, p. 345). Research Methods Your methods include primarily a content analysis and possibly manifest and latent analyses. Your will write three paragraphs in this section. In the first paragraph, you will state the methods you used and describe their definitions and types and elements or procedures according to the textbooks (Make sure you provide the sources of any materials cited in this section). You will then explain how you used the methods, including how you obtained the police audit reports and how you read them. Be specific about where and when the audits were conducted, who conducted the audits, the subject matter of the audits, and the table of contents of the audit reports. In the second paragraph, you will introduce your coded data file and the merged dataset. You will describe the Codebook on Police Audits you used for coding all the variables in the audit reports into the SPSS data file. You should briefly describe the different sections of the Codebook and explain how you found the variables from the audit reports and coded them into SPSS. You will then explain how the merged dataset was created and how you used it to understand your assumptions and/or hypotheses and answer your research questions. But you should not report your analysis results or provide your answers here because they should be reported in detail in the Results section. In the third paragraph, you will provide a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the methods and processes used in this research. Results The Results section provides a detailed description of 1) the results of your research activities and 2) frequency distributions in the dataset of your five or more assumptions or hypotheses. Please be reminded that results of research activities are about the police audit reports you have coded into the SPSS Data File and frequency distributions of your assumptions are based on the SPSS Merged Dataset contributed to by all students in the class. The SPSS Merged Dataset is available in Open Area (O: drive) for you to open and run analyses as described in the Guidelines in Week 5 Overview. For results of your research activities, you will first explain the key concepts and related variables you found in the audit reports you have reviewed, which may include audit standards, procedures, measurement criteria, sampling, inputs, outputs, etc. Be specific about the concepts and related variables you looked for, discovered, and selected while reading the reports. Second, you will explain whether the concepts/variables in the reports match the variables listed in the Codebook on Police Audits and how you coded the variables into SPSS. Third, you will explain if you found concepts and variables that are present in the audit reports but not covered in the Codebook, and explain what they are, how they should be coded, and in which section they should be added in the Codebook. For results of frequency distributions in the SPSS Merged Dataset regarding your assumptions, you will write one paragraph for each assumption based on an examination of the frequency distributions of related variables in the merged dataset. You will include the following information for each assumption: First, restatement of the assumption; second, variables in the assumption and in the dataset and their relationship, if any, that is assumed; third, level of measurement for each variable, i.e., nominal, ordinal, and scaled variable; fourth, patterns or themes and their strengths in terms of frequencies and percentages that have emerged from the frequency distributions of the related variables; and fifth, meaning of the patterns or themes (Explain if the results confirm your original assumptions and if you have encountered any issues that make it difficult for you to reach any conclusions regarding your assumptions). In addition to the above two items, you may choose to report results of hypothesis analyses (optional). If you do that, you will write one paragraph for each hypothesis analysis. You will first restate the hypothesis tested and then explain the relationship between the two variables in the hypothesis; the level of measurement for each variable, i.e., nominal, ordinal, and scaled variable; the statistical technique used such as Bivariate Correlation and Chi-square; statistical significance score (If the sig. score or P score is =< .05, it suggests that a statistically significant relationship exists between the tested variables. If the sig. score or P score is > .05, it suggests that a statistically significant relationship does not exist between the variables); and the meaning of your results (Explain what the results mean if you accept your hypothesis as true or reject your hypothesis as false). Conclusion You should write two paragraphs in this section. In the first paragraph, you will summarize your research questions, key findings, and the extent the analysis results confirmed your assumptions/hypotheses and answered your research questions. In the second paragraph, you will explain what you have learned in this research process, including new things you have learned, their values and usefulness in research and the criminal justice profession, things that surprised you or you have never thought about before, etc. References A full reference page must be attached to the paper with a minimum of five sources listed in alphabetical order according to authors’ last names. Do not use numbers to list them. APA or ASA style for the references is expected for all referenced items. These sources should include journal articles and/or books and other relevant documents such as government publications and reports. Magazine and newspaper sources may be used but will not count as part of the references. Internet sources may be cited only when complete articles can be located online and when credible source information such as authors, sponsors, and/or publishers is available. Attachments Frequency distributions of variables in the merged dataset related to your assumptions (clearly labeled) must be attached to the Research Paper in one Word document. In addition, if you have done any hypothesis analysis using techniques such as Bivariate Correlation and Chi-square, make sure you attach your analysis outputs for each hypothesis analysis (clearly labeled) at the end of the paper.

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