Infectious Diseases

Dear whom it may concern, This is the description of the assignment. There are 4 categories to choose (Diarrhoeal diseases, Pneumonia, Vector-borne diseases and Sexually Transmitted Diseases) and I would like to choose Sexually Transmitted Diseases in India. Should you have any questions, please do not hesitate to contact me. Thank you Assessment 3: Report Weighting: 40% of total marks Due date: Submit report by midnight on the 12th June Task description Disease control programs, particularly those featuring effective primary prevention have been very successful at reducing or eliminating infectious disease threats. Vaccination in particularly has been highly successful, with immunisation programs responsible for preventing millions of deaths worldwide. The eradication of smallpox and elimination of diseases such poliomyelitis and measles from many parts of the world are examples of this success. However, there are many infectious diseases for which control programs can be improved. In addition there remain broad categories of disease deriving from largely infectious causes that result in high rates of morbidity and mortality in different settings. In this assessment task, the aim is to investigate new or modified disease control strategies that aim to improve control in these broad categories of disease. In addition you should provide a reasoned argument outlining the positive and negative aspects of implementing your chosen strategy. While we have provided the broad areas in which to focus below, there is considerable freedom in choice of focus strategy and setting. Focus strategies could include those which are targeted at specific causes of disease (such as immunisation against a single pathogen), or broader approaches that target multiple causes or that reduce the severity of disease. Your completed assessment should take the form of a structured report (2500 words) that addresses the specific tasks described below. This is an individual assessment task that involves reviewing the relevant literature, applying relevant knowledge from the course and use of critical thinking skills. Approach In Table 1 below we provide the four broad disease categories and suggested settings in which to consider their control. After reading through the assessment instructions, you should choose 1 of the 4 disease categories and then select a country that is consistent with the focus setting for that choice. Table 1: Disease category choices and focus settings for Assessment 3 Option Category of Disease/ Focus setting 1 Diarrhoeal diseases/ Low-middle resource setting 2 Pneumonia/ High resource setting 3 Vector-borne diseases/ Low-middle resource country 4 Sexually Transmitted Diseases/ High resource setting Once you have selected a disease category and country setting, you need to complete the following tasks within your written assessment: 1. Briefly describe the epidemiology for the selected disease category in the country, highlighting the most important individual causes, any substantial changes over time and key risk factors (e.g. age etc.) 2. Describe the main disease control strategies currently used in your selected country for targeting this category of disease and briefly summarise evidence of effectiveness in this setting (if available). As there may be several different control strategies used, you will need to prioritise and highlight the key ones, perhaps through a table. 3. Consider other options to improve disease control, based on interventions used in other settings, published research or a control strategy of your devising. You should briefly outline 3 such strategies that are plausible options in relation to your country setting but not currently used. These can include modifications to currently used strategies (for example, proposals to expand the coverage of existing strategy). 4. For one of these three control strategies provide a more detailed summary of the intervention, drawing on evidence of effectiveness, acceptability and value for money (e.g. cost effectiveness). It is important that the strategy is clearly defined (e.g. the population targeted through the strategy, the disease control tools involved) and the objectives clearly stated (e.g. to reduce mortality in children less than 5 etc.). You should also consider how this strategy would be implemented and monitored. 5. Do you think your chosen setting should introduce this new/modified strategy? Describe potential positive and negative outcomes associated with implementation and, considering the evidence described in earlier tasks, provide a recommendation to the health minister on whether to implement the strategy. Assessment Criteria Marks for this assessment task are divided as follows: A total of 30 (out of 40) marks will be allocated for completion of the 5 tasks described in the approach above. These marks are evenly divided between the 5 tasks (6 marks per task). In particular we are looking for: Task 1: A concise description of the existing epidemiology that identifies the major causes of disease burden including key risk factors and any temporal changes in epidemiology. This section should demonstrate the ability to focus on key information based on public health priority. Task 2: A brief description of disease control activities in relation to the chosen disease category in your setting, that focuses detail on the most significant such activities and indicates any effects of these activities. Task 3: Descriptions of three new or revised disease control strategies including an outline of how the strategy works, and whether it has implemented elsewhere. Briefly summarise evidence of effectiveness. It is critical that these strategies are plausible in the chosen setting (e.g. consider cost, acceptability before listing strategies). Task 4: Detailed description of the evidence regarding one of these three strategies, which interpretation in terms of the context (for instance you need to consider if clinical trial results in another setting would transfer to your country context). Task 5: A concluding section that intelligently discusses implementation challenges associated with the proposed new strategy and that provides a recommendation in favour or against implementation. You may also take a more neutral viewpoint (e.g. need more evidence to make a decision) but regardless of the conclusion, this needs to be sensible, evidence-based recommendation. A total of 10 (out of 40) percentage points will be allocated for: 1. Quality of the research conducted: this relates to the breadth and depth of the literature reviewed (see Guidance below). 2. Quality and completeness of referencing: all sources should be appropriately and consistently referenced. 3. Quality of writing and presentation: the report should be well written and presented, in clear and coherent English with a logical structure that should include appropriate use of subheadings, tables and figures. Guidance Literature review: In conducting this task, you will need to review a substantial number of articles and reports. Our preference is for peer-reviewed scientific publications but some use of reports from governmental or international agencies (e.g. WHO) is also acceptable. You should include at least 10 such sources in your reference list, with correct in-text referencing (either APA or Vancouver style is acceptable). Distinction-level assessments will typically have 20 or more references. It is important that you locate the primary source of the cited information and do not rely on published reviews in your report. We also stress that you need to go beyond simply summarising findings from your sources, but show strong evidence of being able to synthesise and evaluate the findings from multiple sources and apply them in the practical context of your chosen setting. Word count: The total word count for the report is 2500 words excluding references, tables and figures. You can include up to 2 tables and 2 figures as needed. Your word count must be provided on the front page. Exceeding the word limit will be subject to penalty. Moderate use of headings and subheadings is encouraged. There are no words limits for the 5 individual sections but we suggest you aim for a similar word count in each. It is important that you answer all sections and in our experience you will not be able to do this effectively unless your total word count is near the recommended limit

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